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In Spring , she took under her patronage her former music teacher and introduced him to the Paris public. Gluck had gruff ways, demanding strict adherence from the cast when rehearsing.
The soprano Arnould was replaced. He insisted that the chorus, too, had to act and become a part of the drama — that they could no longer just stand there posing stiffly and without expression while singing their lines.
Gluck was assisted by Gossec , director of the Concert Spirituel. Marie Antoinette received a large share of the credit.
Gluck had long pondered the fundamental problem of form and content in opera. He thought both of the main Italian operatic genres, opera buffa and opera seria , had strayed too far from what opera should really be and seemed unnatural.
Opera buffa had long lost its original freshness. Its jokes were threadbare and the repetition of the same characters made them seem no more than stereotypes.
In opera seria , the singing was devoted to superficial effects and the content was uninteresting and fossilised. As in opera buffa , the singers were effectively absolute masters of the stage and the music, decorating the vocal lines so floridly that audiences could no longer recognise the original melody.
Gluck wanted to return opera to its origins, focusing on human drama and passions and making words and music of equal importance.
Francesco Algarotti 's Essay on the Opera proved to be an inspiration for Gluck's reforms. He advocated that opera seria had to return to basics and that all the various elements—music both instrumental and vocal , ballet, and staging—must be subservient to the overriding drama.
The first result of the new thinking was Gluck's reformist ballet Don Juan , but a more important work was soon to follow.
On 5 October , Orfeo ed Euridice was given its first performance, on a libretto by Calzabigi, set to music by Gluck. Gluck tried to achieve a noble, Neo-Classical or "beautiful simplicity".
The dances were arranged by Angiolini and the title role was taken by Guadagni, a catalytic force in Gluck's reform, renowned for his unorthodox acting and singing style.
Orfeo , which has never left the standard repertory, showed the beginnings of Gluck's reforms. His idea was to make the drama of the work more important than the star singers who performed it, and to do away with dry recitative recitativo secco, accompanied only by continuo that broke up the action.
Calzabigi wrote a preface to Alceste , which Gluck signed, setting out the principles of their reforms:. Joseph von Sonnenfels praised Gluck's tremendous imagination and the setting after attending a performance of Alceste.
The premiere on 19 April sparked a huge controversy, almost a war, such as had not been seen in the city since the Querelle des Bouffons.
The composers themselves took no part in the polemics, but when Piccinni was asked to set the libretto to Roland , on which Gluck was also known to be working, Gluck destroyed everything he had written for that opera up to that point.
On 2 August the French version of Orfeo ed Euridice was performed, more Rameau -like,  with the title role transposed from the castrato to the tenor voice.
This time Gluck's work was better received by the Parisian public. In the same year, Gluck returned to Vienna, where he was appointed composer to the imperial court 18 October after 20 years serving as Kapellmeister.
Over the next few years, the now internationally famous composer would travel back and forth between Paris and Vienna.
He became friends with the poet Klopstock in Karlsruhe. On 23 April , the French version of Alceste was given. During the rehearsals for Echo et Narcisse in September , Gluck became dangerously ill.
The opera was announced as a collaboration between the two composers; however, after the overwhelming success of its premiere on 26 April , Gluck revealed to the prestigious Journal de Paris that the work was wholly Salieri's.
In Vienna Gluck wrote a few more minor works, spending the Summer with his wife in Perchtoldsdorf , famous for its wine Heuriger. Gluck suffered from melancholy and high blood pressure.
Gluck dominated the season's proceedings with 32 performances. On 15 November , lunching with friends, Gluck suffered a heart arrhythmia and died a few hours later, at the age of Usually, it is mentioned Gluck had several strokes and became paralyzed on his right side.
Robl, a family doctor, had doubts as Gluck was still able to play his clavicord or piano in His death opened the way for Mozart at court, according to H.
Robbins Landon. Gluck was buried in the Matzleinsdorfer Friedhof. On 29 September  his remains were transferred to the Zentralfriedhof ; a tomb was erected containing the original plaque.
Although only half of his work survived after a fire in ,  Gluck's musical legacy includes approximately 35 complete full-length operas plus around a dozen shorter operas and operatic introductions, as well as numerous ballets and instrumental works.
His reforms influenced Mozart , particularly his opera Idomeneo His greatest French admirer would be Hector Berlioz , whose epic Les Troyens may be seen as the culmination of the Gluckian tradition.
Though Gluck wrote no operas in German, his example influenced the German school of opera, particularly Carl Maria von Weber and Richard Wagner , whose concept of music drama was not so far removed from Gluck's own.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Gluck disambiguation. Main article: List of compositions by Christoph Willibald Gluck.
Main article: List of operas by Christoph Willibald Gluck. Main article: List of ballets by Gluck. Ancestry, early life and training.
Sources differ concerning Gluck's nationality: Kuhn , p. Banat, p. The record of ownership from the time it was built to the present is unbroken, and, although the house has been remodeled and modernized, it is believed to retain much of its original appearance.
There is a plaque on the side of the house which reads: "Hier wurde am 2. In the cited document he is named as "Jäger Alexander Gluck zu Erasbach".
Other sources giving this date include Einstein , p. The authenticity of the document has been disputed by Robl , pp. Franziska refused to marry Eugene of Savoy, accepted the next candidate Gian Gastone, who came to the conclusion Reichstadt was a boring place to live.
She refused to follow him to Florence, being more interested in horses and hunting than in him. Gluck himself does not appear in the list of students, although one of his younger brothers does.
All instruction was in Latin, and Gluck's failure to learn Latin, which he had to study later in life, argues against it Heartz , p.
Zweifel und Widerspruche in den biographischen Daten," Die Musikforschung , vol. Gluck" , at glassarmonica. Retrieved 8 June Hillsdale, N.
Encyclopedia Britannica online. Robbins Landon The Mozart Compendium, p. Final years in Vienna. Classical music portal Opera portal Music portal Biography portal.
Christoph Willibald Gluck. List of operas by Gluck. Classical period. List of Classical-era composers. Stamitz J.
Stamitz Filtz Gluck C. Bach L. Mozart G. Classical orchestra String quartet. Gluck , American professor of neuroscience Maxwell Henry Gluck — , American businessman, diplomat, thoroughbred horse breeder and philanthropist Michael Gluck born , American pianist Peter L.
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